Supporting Conversations about Diversity, Equity, Inclusivity, and Social Justice
This resource was originally compiled and adapted from existing resources by The Ohio State University, with additional information provided by the National Conference for Community and Justice, Oregon State University, Arizona State University – Intergroup Relations Center, and The National Center for Transgender Equality. As is noted on the Ohio State website, “This glossary is not intended to be an exhaustive list of every word and term used in conversations about diversity and social justice. Because of the way language works, especially around these concepts, many of these words and terms will continue to evolve. Even so, it can be useful to have a reference that provides basic working definitions that help spur discussions.” The original link may be found here.
Ableism: Prejudiced thoughts and discriminatory actions based on differences in physical, mental, and/or emotional ability; usually that of able‐bodied/minded persons against people with illness, disabilities, or less developed skills/ talents.
Able-bodied: A person who does not have a disability.
Accessibility: The extent to which a facility is readily approachable and usable by individuals with disabilities, particularly such areas as the personnel office, worksite and public areas.
Adultism: Prejudiced thoughts and discriminatory actions against young people, in favor of older person(s).
Adrogyne/Androgynous/Androgyny: (n) 1) Someone who reflects an appearance that is both masculine and feminine, or who appears to be neither or both a boy and a girl, whether intentionally or unintentionally; 2) A person whose identity is between the two traditional genders; or 3) A person who rejects gender roles entirely.
Advocate: Someone who publicly and actively support a particular cause. Can be related to their or another identity group.
Agent: The perpetrator or perpetuator of oppression and/or discrimination; usually a member of the dominant, non‐target identity group.
Ageism: Prejudiced thoughts and discriminatory actions based on differences in age; usually that of younger persons against older.
Agender: A gender identity that involves the lack of feelings associated with man-ness or woman-ness.
Ally: A person of one social identity group (e.g., heterosexual, cisgender) who stands up in support of members of another group (e.g., lesbians, transgender people); typically, a member of dominant group allying for a member or members of targeted group (e.g., a male arguing for equal pay for women).
American: A native or inhabitant of any of the countries of North, South, or Central America. Widely used to denote a native or citizen of the United States.
Anti-Racism: Anti-racism is a form of action against racism and the systemic racism and the oppression of marginalized groups. Being antiracist is based on the conscious efforts and actions to provide equitable opportunities for all people on an individual and systemic level.
Anti‐Semitism: The fear or hatred of Jews, Judaism, and related symbols.
Aromantic: Experiencing little or no romantic attraction to other people. Aromanticism exists on a continuum.
Asexual: Having no evident sex or sex organs. In usage, may refer to a person who is not sexually active, or not sexually attracted to other people. Sometimes referred to as simply “Ace”.
Autism: Also known as autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Refers to a broad range of conditions characterized by challenges with social skills, repetitive behaviors, speech and nonverbal communication.
Bias: An inclination or preference, especially one that interferes with impartial judgment. Can be negative or positive (affinity bias).
Binding/Binder: Binders are used by individuals, typically female-bodied, to give the outward appearance of a flat chest (called “binding”). A binder may be specially designed for this purpose, a sport’s bra, or some other item (e.g., Ace bandage).
Biphobia: The fear or hatred of persons perceived to be bisexual.
Bi‐racial: A person who identifies coming from two races. A person whose biological parents are of two different races.
Bigendered/Dual Gendered: A person who possesses and expresses a distinctly masculine persona and a distinctly feminine persona. Is comfortable in and enjoys presenting in both gender roles either simultaneously or alternately.
Bisexual/Bisexual+: Historically this identity label referred to a person who is attracted to both men and women. However, the evolution of our understanding of gender identity has influenced the way sexual orientation is described such that “bisexual” generally refers to a person who experiences non-monosexual attraction (i.e., attracted to more than one gender).
Categorization: The natural cognitive process of grouping and labeling people, things, etc. based on their similarities. Categorization becomes problematic when the groupings become oversimplified and rigid (e.g., stereotypes).
Cisgender: Not transgender. Refers to the condition of having a gender identity that is consistent with sex assigned at birth (e.g., someone assigned female at birth who identifies as a woman).
Cisnormativity: The belief that being cisgender is normal. This belief feeds into a system of oppression that privileges cisgender individuals and denies equality to transgender people.
Cissexism: The assumption that all people are cisgender. Because this assumption is so deeply ingrained in our society through socialization, many people say and do things that are cissexist without realizing it or intending to.
Citizen: A legally recognized subject or national of a state or commonwealth, either native or naturalized.
Classism: Prejudiced thoughts and discriminatory actions based on difference in socio‐economic status, income, class; usually by upper classes against lower.
Coalition: A collection of different people or groups, working toward a common goal.
Code-switching: The act of altering one’s communication style and/or appearance in different situations. Often members of target groups code-switch to minimize the impact of bias from the dominant group.
Collusion: Willing participation in the discrimination against and/or oppression of one’s own group (e.g., a woman who enforces dominant body ideals through her comments and actions).
Color Blind: The belief in treating everyone “equally” by treating everyone the same; based in the presumption that differences are by definition bad or problematic, and therefore best ignored (i.e., “I don’t see race, gender, etc.”). A type of microaggression that negates a person’s experience as a member of their race.
Demisexual: A person who does not experience sexual attraction to someone until a greater, often emotional, bond is formed.
Dialogue: Communication that creates and recreates multiple understandings; it is bidirectional, not zero‐sum and may or may not end in agreement; it can be emotional and uncomfortable, but is safe, respectful and has greater understanding as its goal.
Disability: A physical or mental condition that limits movements, senses, or activities. A person with a disability is just that, a person who has a disability. Place the emphasis on the person, not the disability. Never handicapped.
Discrimination: Actions, based on conscious or unconscious prejudice, which favor one group over others in the provision of goods, services, or opportunities.
Diversity: The wide variety of shared and different personal and group characteristics among human beings.
Dominant Culture: The cultural values, beliefs, and practices that are assumed to be the most common and influential within a given society.
Drag Queen/King (n): A man or woman dressed as the opposite gender, usually for the purpose of performance or entertainment. Many times overdone or outrageous and may present a “stereotyped” portrayal of gender.
Dysmorphism: A dysmorphic feature is a difference in body structure. It can be an isolated feature in an otherwise “healthy” individual, or it can be related to a congenital disorder, genetic syndrome, or birth defect.
Elitism: The belief that a select group of individuals with a certain ancestry, intrinsic quality, high intellect, wealth, special skill, or experience are more likely to be constructive to society, and therefore deserve influence or authority greater than that of others.
Enculturation: The gradual acquisition of the characteristics and norms of a culture or group by a person, another culture, etc. Societal norms are learned through socialization.
Ethnicity: Differs from race in that ethnicity refers to cultural factors, including nationality, regional culture, ancestry, and language. A person can have multiple ethnicities but is said to have only one race (if multiracial, labeled “mixed”).
Equity (Social): Freedom from bias or favoritism; impartiality; fairness. Social equity seeks to address the underlying and systemic differences of opportunity and access to social resources. Differs from “equality” in that we are not all the same, some people need more help than others.
Female-bodied: A person who was assigned female at birth.
Feminism: The advocacy of women’s rights based on the equality of the sexes.
FTM/F2M/F to M: Abbreviation for a person who was assigned female at birth (AFAB), but identifies as male and transitioned to a masculine appearance that is consistent with their gender identity. Some, but not all FTM’s undergo medical procedures (hormones, surgery).
Gay: Originally described a man who is sexually attracted to men. Today, the term is also used by others to indicate a non-heterosexual orientation.
Gender: Socially constructed binary concepts of masculinity and femininity often referred to as boy and girl, man and woman; the socially ‘appropriate’ qualities accompanying biological sex. Frequently used interchangeably with “sex”.
Gendered: Having a distinct association with being masculine and/or feminine, man or woman.
Genderfluid: A gender identity characterized by fluctuation between masculine/feminine/other (gender expression) and/or man-ness/woman-ness/other (gender identity). Some gender fluid people experience shifts on a frequent basis (within a day), others may go long periods of time.
Genderqueer: A person who does not subscribe to conventional gender distinctions, but identifies with neither, both, or a combination of masculine and feminine genders. A non-binary gender identity. May use gender-neutral pronouns.
Gender Affirming Surgery: Surgical procedures associated with altering the genitals or secondary sex characteristics to be consistent with a person’s gender identity. What was formerly referred to as a “sex change” (an outdated and often considered offensive term).
Gender Bending: Dressing or behaving in such a way as to question the traditional feminine or masculine qualities assigned to physical appearance and/or behavior.
Gender Binary: The idea that there are only two genders: man and woman. This idea is challenged by individuals who identify as non-binary (e.g., genderqueer, agender).
Gender Dysphoria: The distress that a person experiences when the sex they were assigned at birth (by way of anatomy) does not match their gender identity. A person may experience various degrees of dysphoria with respect to different parts of their anatomy. For example, a female-bodied person may experience dysphoria with their breasts and voice but not genitalia.
Gender Identity: A person’s perception of having a gender. It may or may not correspond with sex assigned at birth or the gender binary.
Gender Non-conforming: An individual or identity characterized by traits that do not conform to conventional gendered behavior, expression, or gender roles.
Gender Pronouns: The pronouns that a person prefers and reflects their gender identity (e.g., she/her/hers; they/them/theirs; he/him/his). A variety of gender-neutral pronouns exist, most commonly they/them/theirs.
Hate Crime: Hate crime legislation often defines a hate crime as a crime motivated by the actual or perceived race, color, religion, national origin, ethnicity, gender, disability, or sexual orientation of the victim.
Heterosexism: The presumption that everyone is, and should be, heterosexual.
Heterosexual: A person who is attracted to members of the opposite sex.
Homophobia: The fear or hatred of homosexuality and other non‐heterosexual identities.
Homosexual: A person who is attracted to members of the same sex. (Not a preferred term. See: Gay, Lesbian)
Hermaphrodite: An individual possessing the reproductive organs and many of the secondary sex characteristics of both sexes. (Not a preferred term for humans. See: Intersex)
Identity Politics: A tendency for people of a religion, race, social background, etc., to form exclusive political alliances, moving away from traditional broad-based party politics.
In‐group Bias (favoritism): The tendency for groups to “favor” themselves by rewarding group members economically, socially, psychologically, and emotionally in order to uplift one group over another.
In-groups and Out-groups: An in-group is a social group to which a person psychologically identifies as being a member. By contrast, an out-group is a social group with which an individual does not identify.
Inclusion: Involvement and empowerment, where the inherent worth and dignity of all people are recognized. An inclusive community promotes and sustains a sense of belonging; it values and practices respect for the talents, beliefs, backgrounds, and ways of living of its members.
Intergroup Conflict: Tension and conflict which exists between social groups. And which may be enacted by individual members of these groups.
‐Ism: Social phenomenon and psychological state where prejudice is accompanied by the power to systemically enact it.
Intersectionality: the interconnected nature of social identities such as race, class, and gender that creates interdependent systems of privilege and disadvantage.
Intersex: 1) A person who is biologically intermediate between male and female; 2) A person with both ovarian and testicular tissue; or 3) A person with two ovaries or two testes, but ambiguous external genitalia.
Latinx: A person of Latin American origin or descent (gender-neutral version of Latino or Latina).
Lesbian: A woman who is attracted to other women. (adj.) describing such women.
LGBTQ: Acronym encompassing diverse groups of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer populations and allies and/or lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer alliances/associations. The acronym has evolved over the decades and there is debate about which one is most inclusive. There is the cumbersome LGBTQQIAAP (with 2nd Q = questioning, I = intersex, A = asexual, A = allies, and P = pansexual). Most commonly encountered is LGBTQ, but LGBTQ+ is increasing in usage.
Lookism: Construction of a standard for beauty and attractiveness, and judgements made about people based on how well or poorly they meet the standard.
Male-bodied: A person who was assigned male at birth.
Marginalized: Excluded, ignored, or relegated to the outer edge of a group/society/community.
Medical Transition: The procedure(s) a transgender person undertakes to transform their body to align more closely with their gender identity. Some individuals undergo surgeries, others only take hormones. The effects of hormones vary by individual and birth sex. Surgeries, if performed, are usually multi-staged and require revision(s). There is typically no single “sex-change operation” that magically transforms an individual. Hormones take many months to masculinize/feminize the body (See Gender Affirming Surgery).
Metrosexual: A metropolitan heterosexual man who is meticulous about his grooming and appearance, typically spending a significant amount of money and time shopping to maintain his appearance.
Microaggressions: Commonplace, interpersonally communicated, “othering” messages related to a person’s perceived marginalized status.
Misogyny: Hatred of women.
Model Minority: Refers to a minority ethnic, racial, or religious group whose members achieve a higher degree of success than the population average. This success is typically measured in income, education, and related factors such as low crime rate and high family stability.
MTF/M2F/M to F: Abbreviation for a person who was assigned male at birth (AMAB) but identifies as female and transitioned to a feminine appearance that is consistent with their gender identity. Some, but not all MTF’s undergo medical procedures (hormones, surgery).
MTM/FTF: A transgender individual who has medically transitioned and feels their birth sex was never an identity to which they could relate. In other words, a person with a birth sex of female may have lived as female for many years, but never identified as a woman. Instead she always identified as male and transitioned to become outwardly visible as male. The social identity of female (FTM) to male is an inappropriate description of their experience with gender.
Multiethnic: An individual that comes from more than one ethnicity. An individual whose parents are born from more than one ethnicity (See Ethnicity).
Multiplicity: The quality of having multiple, simultaneous social identities (e.g., being male, Buddhist and wealthy).
Multiracial: An individual whose parents are born from more than one race.
Naming: When we articulate a thought that traditionally has not been discussed.
National Origin: The political state from which an individual hails; may or may not be the same as that the person’s current location or citizenship.
Neurodiversity: A grassroot civil rights effort spearheaded largely by autistic individuals and focused on improving the lives of autistic individuals. Proponents view autism as a natural form of human diversity, not as inherently disordered.
Non-binary: A person who does not relate to gender in the traditional binary model of male and female. An identity that does not subscribe to the convention that there are only two gender identities.
Nondisabled: A person who does not have a disability.
Oppression: Results from the use of institutional power and privilege where one person or group benefits at the expense of another. Oppression is the use of power and the effects of domination.
Overprivileged: Disproportionately privileged compared to others; excessively privileged.
Pangender: Someone whose gender identity is comprised of all or many gender identities and expressions.
Pansexual: A term referring to the potential for sexual attractions or romantic love toward people of all gender identities and biological sexes. The concept of pansexuality deliberately rejects the gender binary and derives its origin from the transgender movement.
Passing: A transgender person who medically or socially transitions “passes” when they begin to be recognized as their correct gender. For example, a person who was assigned male at birth and transitions to have their outward appearance/body match their gender identity begins passing when other people stop misgendering her as a man. Passing is therefore about how a trans person is perceived in public and is context dependent. NOTE: not all trans people have the goal of passing and this is a controversial issue for some people who believe the goal should be acceptance, not meeting socially prescribed standards of gender expression.
Passing Privilege: There is variation in the degree to which medically and/or socially transitioned people are recognized as their correct gender (i.e., passing) and this comes with various, context dependent, levels of privilege. Often, transwomen have difficulty passing and are thus denied passing privilege because many hormonally masculinized traits are difficult, if not impossible, to reverse without surgical intervention (e.g., hand size, jaw line, hair loss). People who, as a result of transitioning, do not have other people question their gender are considered to have passing privilege.
Personal Identity: Our identities as individuals‐including our personal characteristics, history, personality, name, and other characteristics that make us unique and different from other individuals.
People of Color: A collective term for men and women of Asian, African, Latin and Native American (non-White) backgrounds; as opposed to the collective “White” for those of European ancestry.
PFLAG: Founded in 1973, PFLAG (formerly Parents and Friends of Lesbians And Gays) is the nation’s largest family and ally organization with over 400 chapters and 200,000 members.
PGPs: Abbreviation for “preferred gender pronouns”. Some people have suggested removing “preferred” because it indicates flexibility (which is true for some, but not all, people) and/or the power for the speaker to decide which pronouns to use for someone else. Best practice is to ask for “gender pronouns” or just “pronouns”.
Polyamory: The practice of having multiple open, honest love relationships.
Prejudice: A preconceived judgment about a person or group of people; usually indicating negative bias.
PrEP: Abbreviation for pre-exposure prophylaxis. PrEP is a preventative treatment (daily pill) for people who do not have HIV, but who have a substantial risk of getting it. When taken consistently, PrEP has been shown to reduce the risk of HIV infection by up to 92%.
Privilege: A right, license, or exemption from duty or liability granted as a special benefit, advantage, or favor. In the context of systematic oppression, privilege is unearned and granted only on the basis of perceived social identity.
Queer: An umbrella term that can refer to anyone who transgresses society’s view of gender or sexuality. The definitional indeterminacy of the word Queer, its elasticity, is one of its constituent characteristics: “A zone of possibilities.” A term that was used by heterosexuals as an insult that has been reclaimed by some members of the LGBTQ community. Note: some LGBT individuals find the word offensive and some queer-identified people may be offended if non-queer people use the term.
Questioning: A term used to refer to an individual who is uncertain of her/his sexual orientation or gender identity.
Race: A group of people thought to share certain distinctive physical characteristics, such as facial structure or skin color. Involves characteristics that are thought to be biologically inherited (unlike ethnic characteristics).
Racial Gaslighting: Racial gaslighting is related specifically to psychological abuse surrounding racism. Racial gaslighting often comes about when a victim is led to doubt and question their own sense of reality with regard to racism.
Racism: Prejudiced thoughts and discriminatory actions based on difference in race/ethnicity; usually by white/European descent groups against persons of color.
Rainbow Flag: The Rainbow Freedom Flag was designed in 1978 by Gilbert Baker to designate the great diversity of the LGBTQ community. It has been recognized by the International Flag Makers Association as the official flag of the LGBTQ civil rights movement.
Religion: A system of beliefs, usually spiritual in nature, and often in terms of a formal, organized denomination.
Safe Space: Refers to an environment in which everyone feels comfortable in expressing themselves and participating fully, without fear of attack, ridicule or denial of experience.
Same Gender Loving: A term coined by activist Cleo Manago as a description for homosexuals, particularly in the African American community. SGL is an alternative to terms for homosexual identities (e.g., gay and lesbian) that can carry negative connotations to some people.
Saliency: The quality of a group identity of which an individual is more conscious of in any given moment and which plays a larger role in that individual’s day‐to‐day life; for example, a man’s awareness of his “maleness” in an elevator with only women.
Sapiosexual: One who find the contents of someone else’s mind to be their most attractive attribute, above physical or other characteristics. The sexual orientation of a person who identifies as sapiosexual.
Serostatus: The state of either having or not having detectible antibodies against a specific antigen, as measured by a blood test (serologic test). For example, HIV seropositive mean that a person has detectible antibodies to HIV; seronegative means that a person does not have detectible HIV antibodies.
Sex: Binary biological classification of male or female (based on genetic or physiological features); as opposed to gender, which is social in nature (frequently used interchangeably with “gender” despite this difference).
Sexism: Prejudiced thoughts and discriminatory actions based on difference in sex/gender; usually by men against women but can also involve women against other women.
Sexual Orientation: One’s natural (not chosen) preference in sexual partners; predilection for homosexuality, heterosexuality, bisexuality, pansexuality, or other sexual identities.
Silencing: The conscious or unconscious processes by which the voice or participation of particular social identities is exclude or inhibited.
Social Identity: A person’s sense of who they are based on their group memberships. Each person has multiple social identities associated with varying degrees of privilege.
Social Identity Development: The stages or phases that a person’s group identity follows as it matures or develops.
Social Justice: A broad term for action intended to create genuine equality, fairness and respect among peoples.
Social Justice Warrior: A pejorative term for an individual who promotes socially progressive view, including feminism, civil rights, and multiculturalism, as well as identity politics.
Social Oppression: When one social group, whether knowingly or unconsciously, exploits another group for its own benefit.
Social Self‐Esteem: The degree of positive‐negative evaluation an individual holds about his/her particular situation in regard to his/her social identities.
Social Self‐View: An individual’s perception of to which social identity groups he/she belongs.
Social Transition: The process of altering how one socially presents their gender. This may involve using different pronouns and minor or significant alteration of gender expression. Social transition may happen before or even without medical transition.
Socialization: The process of learning to behave in a way that is acceptable to society.
SOFFA: Acronym for Significant Others, Friends, Families, and Allies of transgender individuals.
Spanglish: A colloquial and contested mixture of Spanish and English words, phrases and grammar.
Spotlighting: The practice of inequitably calling attention to particular social groups in language, while leaving others as the invisible, de facto norm. For example: “black male suspect” (versus “male suspect,” presumed white); “WNBA” (as opposed to “NBA,” presumed male); “female senator” (versus “senator”, presumed male).
Stealth: This refers to a person who has socially and/or medically transitioned from their sex assigned at birth and does not disclose their past, presenting only as their true gender. Often this involves disassociating from people who know their history.
Stereotype: Blanket beliefs and expectations about members of certain groups that present an oversimplified opinion, prejudiced attitude, or uncritical judgment. They go beyond necessary and useful categorizations and generalizations in that they are typically negative, are based on little or misguided information, and are highly generalized.
Stereotype Threat: A situational predicament in which a people are or feel themselves to be at risk of confirming a stereotype about their social group.
System of Oppression: Conscious and unconscious, non‐random, and organized harassment, discrimination, exploitation, discrimination, prejudice and other forms of unequal treatment that impact different groups.
Third Gender: Someone whose gender identity is not man or woman, but some other gender outside of the binary.
Tolerance (n): Acceptance and open‐mindedness to different practices, attitudes, and cultures; does not necessarily mean agreement with the differences.
Trans-exclusionary Radical Feminism (TERF): A group of feminists who claim that transwomen are not really women and thus exclude them from female-only spaces. The term “TERF” may be considered offensive by the women who subscribe to this idea.
Transgender: Appearing as, wishing to be considered as, or having undergone surgery to present in a way that is consistent with a person’s gender identity. Transgender is an umbrella term that can include transsexuals, cross‐dressers, drag kings/queens, masculine women, feminine men, and those who defy what society tells them is appropriate for their gender. Note: a person is transgender, not transgendered. A transgender person has gender dysphoria, not transgenderism.
Transition: The process a transgender individual undergoes to present as the gender that is consistent with their gender identity. It may, but not necessarily, involve changes in outward appearance (e.g., clothing, hair style), hormones, and/or surgical interventions. (See also Medical Transition)
Transmisogyny: The intersection of transphobia and misogyny. Defined as the irrational fear of, aversion to, or discrimination against transgender people. Transmisogyny is often directed at transwomen in particular.
Transphobia: The fear or hatred of persons perceived to be transgender and/or transsexual.
Transsexual: A term that is waning in popularity (dubbed in 1923), refers person who has medically transitioned from the sex they were assigned at birth to another gender, usually the opposite sex (i.e., FTM and MTF). Some transgender people who medically transition do not identify as transsexual.
Two Spirit: A Native American term for individuals who identify both as male and female. In western culture these individuals are identified as lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgendered.
Unconscious Bias: See Implicit Bias.
Underprivileged: Not having the same standard of living or rights as the majority of people in a society.
Veteran Status: Whether or not an individual has served in a nation’s armed forces (or other uniformed service).
White Denial: (A white person’s) denial that racism exists.
Worldview: The perspective though which individuals view the world; comprised of their history, experiences, culture, family history, and other influences.